Off-Grid System



Although they are most common in remote locations without utility service, off-grid solar-electric systems can work anywhere. These systems operate independently from the grid to provide all of a household’s electricity. These systems require a battery bank to store the solar electricity for use during night time or cloudy weather, a charge controller to protect the battery bank from overcharge, an inverter to convert the DC PV array power to AC for use with AC household appliances, and all the required disconnects, monitoring, and associated electrical safety gear



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ON-Grid System



These most common PV systems are also known as on-grid, grid-tied, utility-interactive, grid-intertied, or grid-direct. They generate solar electricity and route it to the loads and to the electric utility grid, offsetting a home’s or business’s electricity usage. The solar electricity produced is transferred to the grid and a meter attached to the system calculates the energy produced. The difference between the energy consumed and energy produced is calculated and the customer is charged according to the difference.



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Hybrid System



This type is very similar to an off-grid system in design and components, but adds the utility grid, which reduces the need for the system to provide all the energy all the time. Some of the energy produced is stored in the battery bank and can be utilised whenever needed.



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